The bell tower is covered with a low tent on four slopes.
However, they differ in some variety of their forms, while maintaining a certain stylistic unity, which once again speaks of the great creative imagination and ingenuity of folk architects.
Bell towers were erected next to the temples. To the construction of their bells were usually hung in the churches themselves, above the western logs, where you can see traces of their fortifications. In some temples the bells have not yet been made into separate bell towers. For example, in the wooden temples of the villages of Kostryno in the Velykobereznyansky district and Maidan in the Mizhhirya district, they remained on the bell towers of the temples. In those churches where the bells have already been removed, the bell towers have acquired only architectural and decorative significance.
Usually only the first tier of the bell tower was chopped, and subsequent tiers developed in the frame. But there are bell towers in which only a frame design is applied. The upper tier was made with open holes – or in the form of simple cuts in the skin of the frame, or in the form of a low arcade. Most of the bell towers are covered with the usual four-pitched tents with small heads at the top.
Today’s existing bell towers date back to the XIX and XX centuries, no previous buildings have survived. Apparently, the construction of separate bell towers in Transcarpathia in earlier times was not practiced at all, and the bells, as we have already noted, were placed on the church bell tower.
Many bell towers have lost their original appearance due to repairs and alterations and acquired other architectural forms, somewhat different from the architecture of the main building – the church.
In ancient times, bell towers were used not only for worship, but also for other purposes. The lower tiers, for example, were used for warehouses, and the upper served as watchtowers.
The simplest type is the bell tower in the village of Gusny, Velykobereznyansky district. This is a rectangular in plan two-story building, where the first tier – chopped, deaf, the second – a frame with open holes; bells are hung immediately. The bell tower is covered with a low tent on four slopes.
Further development of types of bell towers is associated with an increase in its height due to the growth of tiers. The upper tier, with some exceptions, was made open. The architectural treatment of the upper tier is similar to the treatment of the arcade-gallery in the temples.
The bell tower in the village of Izky, Mizhhirya district, has acquired an exclusively original form, where the folk master is especially successful in solving the smooth transition from the roof of the canopy to the vertical wall of the tower. Here, shingles cover the entire frame of the tower, giving the bell tower an unusual slenderness and integrity of form. The top of the tower ends with a wide cornice, which emphasizes the tent with one bend and a flashlight at the top.
The two-tiered bell tower in the village is original in its formsPrislip Mizhhirya district, part of a single ensemble with the church. The first tier is chopped and covered with a wide canopy with a strong curvature of rolling. At the level of the canopy the hall is made, and the felling passes into a frame system of designs. The second tier is much higher than the first and ends with a gallery with sloping arches. The belfry is covered with an octagonal tent roof with a large extension. Elements of defensive architecture can be traced in this original building, especially in its completion.
The bell tower in the village of Huklyvy, Volovets district, belongs to the same type. She is tall, slender, in two tiers. The first tier is chopped and covered with a wide canopy. The second is much higher than the first, frame structure and ends with an open arcade grate. Its top is covered with a four-pitched tent roof. A high wooden bell tower was built in the village of Sokyrnytsia, Khust district.
Its constructive basis is a powerful frame placed on an oak binding, consisting of beams of large cross-section (24X X28 cm). The bottom of the bell tower is accentuated by a small canopy and cladding of the frame with vertical planed boards with panels, and the top ends with an open gallery. The bell tower is covered with a hipped roof. The building is distinguished by well-found proportions, simple but expressive architectural forms.
The most original wooden buildings include the bell tower in the village of Chetovo, Beregovo district, which impresses with its scale. It is one of the highest wooden bell towers in Transcarpathia. The quadrangular tower with a powerful base rises by 16.5 m. Its oak frame has a clear rhythm of structural elements. The multifaceted high spire that completes the tower gives the building an extraordinary slenderness and lightness, and the shingles cover adds architectural integrity to the building.
The original wooden buildings should also include a two-story bell tower in the village of Kraynikovo, Khust district (now it has been moved to a stone temple). This belfry is frame, in one tier, completes its low spire.
A masterpiece of folk wooden construction is the bell tower of the “Strukivska” church in the village of Yasinya, Rakhiv district. The lower tier is a chopped quadrangle, covered with a canopy, which rests on the protrusions of the crowns of the log house. In the second tier, the quadruple turns into an octagon of frame construction and is covered by an octagonal tent with a small head at the top.
Vowels in the second tier around the perimeter form a continuous hole, separated only by the racks of the frame. According to available information, this bell tower was moved to the “Strukivska” church in 1895 from the church destroyed by fire, which was located in the northeastern part of the village.
Near some temples there are still fences with original gates, resembling the shape of the usual wooden gate, decorated with geometric ornaments of thin rails.
Museum of Easter painting in Kolomyia
The tradition of painting eggs in the Hutsul and Pokut region has a long history and it is here that the art of Easter painting has reached a high level. The collection of Easter eggs in the Kolomyia Museum of Folk Art of the Hutsul region was formed for many decades and gradually the idea arose to create a separate department – the Museum of Easter Egg Painting.
The main tasks of the museum of Easter painting were to be: collection, storage, and popularization of works by folk artists, their scientific elaboration and transmission to future generations.
Initially, it was planned to place the museum in the former Polish churches in Delyatyn or in Stopchatow. Then the regional department of culture submitted the idea of building a museum exposition in Ivano-Frankivsk, in a house that was located in a city park and built in the Hutsul style. But the best option was to open a museum in the Kolomyia Church of the Annunciation, and this was approved by the decision of the executive committee of the city council in August 1983.
Since then, intensive work has begun on the creation of a museum to replenish the collection, the development of the structure of the museum and the thematic exposition plan.
The grand opening of the museum took place on October 26, 1987. just on the 400th anniversary of the church of St. Annunciation.
The church-museum was located at the crossroads of busy highways, which led to active visits to the museum, although it functioned only in the summer.
In 1990. the church was handed over to the faithful, and the museum did not receive permanent premises. Since 1992 the museum of pysanka painting was located in a poorly adapted house on the street. R. Shukhevych, 78. The exposition consisted of four sections:
The history of the Easter egg and its role in the spiritual culture of the Ukrainian people. Easter egg painting techniques. Tools. Compositions of ornamental motifs. Pysanka is a work of art. Borrowing Easter egg ornaments by other arts.
A new page in the history of the museum began with the construction of a specialized house, the central part of which has the shape of an egg about 13 m high, which is painted on the outside like an Easter egg. Construction lasted a record time – 90 days.
The grand opening of the museum took place on September 23, 2000. during the X International Hutsul Folklore and Ethnographic Festival, which was attended by the President of Ukraine and the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada.
When governmental and foreign delegations are on working visits to Prykarpattia, it is safe to say that they will definitely visit the Pysanka Museum. The architectural structure in the shape of the world’s largest egg, which is painted like an Easter egg, has become a hallmark of Kolomyia and attracts visitors from all over the world.
In our museum there is a tradition related to its specifics and started by the head of the regional state administration Mykhailo Vyshivanyuk. It consists in the fact that when the museum is visited by the first persons of the state, the professional pysanka gives them a white chicken egg, melted beeswax, a pen and offers to make a signature on the surface of the egg. And then he paints like an Easter egg.
The museum’s collection already includes Easter eggs with the signatures of the President of Ukraine LD Kuchma and his wife Lyudmila Mykolayivna. Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada free lab report writing of Ukraine Ivan Plyushch. Prime Minister AK Kinakh, Deputy Prime Minister V. Seminozhenko. Former prime ministers VP Postovoitenko, VA Yushchenko, Defense Minister O. Kuzmuk and others. The museum was visited by governors of all regions and numerous foreign delegations led by ambassadors and consuls.
The concept of the museum’s exposition was developed by the director Tkachuk Ya.Yu., and embodied by Kolomyia artists V. Andrushko and M. Yasinsky.
At present, the museum has become a kind of temple of art, customs and traditions. The lobby features a sculpture of the Mother of God with a child and embroidered miraculous icons that create a unique atmosphere for in-depth inspection. On the second floor there are pysankas from the largest centers of pysanka painting in Hutsul and Pokut and from Ternopil, Lviv, Vinnytsia, Cherkasy, Kirovohrad, Odesa and others. reg. From Poland, the Czech Republic, Sweden, the USA, Canada, Pakistan and India. The interior of the Hutsul house and the compositional stage “Easter” are also presented.
Architectural features of Ukrainian Carpathian buildings
The abstract presents a typological description of rural settlements and peasant estates of Ukrainians in the Carpathians of the XIX – early XX centuries
In the Ukrainian Carpathians, East Slavic settlements have existed since ancient times, as evidenced by chronicles and toponymic data. The settlements were located in mountain valleys along trade routes and near saltworks.